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A world tour of a record year

2020 was effectively tied with 2016 for the warmest year on record, with global warming linked to greenhouse gas emissions showing no signs of slowing down.

Siberia and the Arctic were among the warmest regions. The heat fueled forest fires that pumped more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Temperatures in the Siberian city of Verkhoyansk reached a record high of 100 degrees Fahrenheit in June, more than 30 degrees above average.

The heat was also felt in Europe, which experienced the hottest year in its history and experienced searing heatwaves until September.

The surface cooling of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which began in the second half of the year, has hardly offset the heat elsewhere.

In central South America, warming and drought triggered forest fires that burned a quarter of the vast Pantanal wetland.

In the United States, the warming has been greatest in the northeast and southwest. The drought has spread to half of the country.


This analysis of global temperatures, carried out by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA and released on Thursday, found that 2020 was slightly warmer than 2016. But the difference was insignificant, said institute director Gavin Schmidt, in an interview.

“In fact, it’s a statistical equality,” he says.

Other analyzes released Thursday, one by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and another by Berkeley Earth, an independent research group in California, found that 2020 was slightly colder than 2016, just like the one released last week by the Copernicus Climate Change Service in Europe. But the difference was small enough that it was not statistically significant.

With the 2020 results, the past seven years have been the warmest since modern archiving began almost a century and a half ago, Dr Schmidt said.

“We’re now very, very clear on the underlying long-term trends,” he said. “We understand where they come from. This is because of the greenhouse gases pumped into the atmosphere.

The planet has warmed by more than 1 degree Celsius (about 2 degrees Fahrenheit) since the late 1800s, when the spread of industrialization resulted in increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. greenhouse, and the pace has accelerated in recent decades. Since 1980, warming has averaged about 0.18 degrees Celsius (about 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade.

But the numbers are only a small part of the story. As climatologists predicted, the world is seeing an increase in heat waves, storms and other extreme weather conditions as the planet warms, and disasters such as droughts, floods and wildfires. that result. The past year has offered no respite, with record fires in Australia and California, and severe drought in central South America and the American Southwest.

Some climatologists had thought that the arrival of cooler sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean – part of the recurring global climate phenomenon called La Niña – would squeeze temperatures this year. It is difficult to quantify the influence of La Niña, but it is clear that any effect has been overshadowed by the rise in temperature linked to emissions.

La Niña only appeared in September and grew stronger a few months later. La Niña’s climate impact tends to peak several months after the waters of the Pacific have reached their coldest point, so it may have more cooling effect in 2021.

When La Niña is factored in, “you don’t expect a banner year” in 2021, Dr Schmidt said. “But another year in the top five, and one that is clearly part of a series of very hot years that we have had,” he added.

Dr Schmidt said his team and others have studied the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on temperatures in 2020. Lockdown orders and the economic downturn have reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 10% in the United States only, according to a recent report.

Such a reduction does not have an immediate effect on temperatures, Dr Schmidt said, and emissions will likely rise again as the pandemic subsides and the global economy returns to normal.

The biggest short-term effect, he said, could be the reduction of some transport-related pollution, including exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, as driving has declined during the pandemic.

Nitrogen oxides form aerosols in the atmosphere that reflect some of the sun’s rays, which would otherwise strike the surface and be re-emitted as heat. Even a slight reduction in these aerosols would allow more sunlight to reach the surface, generating more heat that would be trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases.

Dr Schmidt said efforts were underway to quantify the effect over the past year. “The numbers aren’t important,” he said, but they may have played a role in making 2020 a banner year.

“The warming associated with aerosol reduction can be history,” he said.

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A hostel or a bike tour: how to make shopping more affordable

Owners of a Mexican tile importing company in Austin, Texas, Nick Barreiro and Canan Kaba had to travel on business during the pandemic. But the opportunity to stay as the sole guests of the five-bedroom Amparo Hotel in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, for $ 500 a night last summer, served two of the couple’s goals: to enjoy a hotel they had discovered on a previous trip and make sure they were not contributing to the spread of the virus.

They missed out on meeting other travelers and having more menu choices, but, said Barreiro, “all of this is easily offset by having the hotel entirely to yourself.”

In these socially remote times, many travel agencies are adapting to offer their accommodation, tours and experiences to private groups of families or groups of friends. Most of these buyouts tend to target one percent travelers – the 20-bedroom Greydon House in Nantucket, for example, costs $ 20,000 a night in the summer – but savvy planners will find more affordable options for private travel for satisfy their desire to travel now or in the post-vaccination future.

“We’ve found that if we can keep it relatively affordable per room or per guest, then it’s something in the normal vacation range and people are very intrigued,” said Brent Reynolds, Managing Director of Nolan Reynolds International, which runs a few small hotels in Costa Rica where private bookings have quadrupled since the pandemic. Its Casa Chameleon in Mal Pais, which can accommodate 20 adults in 10 villas, on the Nicoya Peninsula costs $ 3,000 a night.

Keeping a buyout affordable depends on reaching the maximum number of travelers to spread the costs. In some cases, per-person rates may seem economical, but depend on larger groups – the laid-back Hotel San José in Austin, for example, sells for $ 15,000 a night for 80 people. The new 17-room Dubbel Dutch hotel in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where rooms start at $ 150, has made buyouts to accommodate small weddings and retreats.

Some destinations limit group bookings based on Covid-19 restrictions; California, for example, currently only allows accommodation for essential travelers in areas under stay-at-home control. But as private bookings tend to require planning up to six months in advance, now is the time to think about a bubble trip for the summer or beyond, when increased vaccine distribution could. enable safer travel.

Beyond renting a private vacation home, here are some ways creative tour operators make redemptions realistic for many travelers.

Group tour operators have had a very difficult pandemic year. But some of them have adapted to the demand for social distancing and isolation by reconfiguring their tours for small private groups, often not much larger than the average American household.

Over the summer, Escape Adventures, which specializes in bike tours in the American West, increased its minimum of private tours from 10 to five in response to the pandemic, making tours more affordable for groups of families and friends. His four-day trip on the 100-mile White Rim Trail in Canyonlands National Park in Utah – described as a “natural roller coaster” for its dips and climbs – starts at $ 999 per person, meal and two. guides included: a savings of $ 1,900 a person compared to private pre-Covid tours. Bring your own camping gear or rent it for around $ 100 each.

Tour operator Backroads has created a travel division somewhere between buyouts and group tours. New Rendezvous option allows a small group – up to seven in Europe and nine in North America – to have their own assistance van and guide, as well as the ability to check in and out of scheduled events for the large group. The semi-private option has an additional cost per group of $ 2,400 in Europe and $ 2,900 in North America. A four-day hike in Palm Springs and Joshua Tree National Park starts at $ 2,699 per person, before the Rendezvous supplement.

Small-group specialist G Adventures has added 80 tours for private departures called “Book Your Bubble Collection” designed for eight to 12 travelers. Options include eight days in Morocco starting at $ 671 per person and 16 days exploring Costa Rica starting at $ 1,423 per person (Morocco and Costa Rica are open to American travelers with some restrictions).

As always, before booking a private group tour, check the cancellation policy to understand its terms and possible penalties. G Adventures currently offers a flexible cancellation policy that allows reservation changes up to 30 days prior to departure.

Most affordable accommodation, such as hostels, tends to run the finances by hosting a lot of rooms or guests, making them expensive to buy. (One exception is the relatively small Cache House in Jackson, Wyo., Where groups can purchase a 24-bunk room for $ 199 per person at full capacity, including a ski pass and dinner).

Getting a complete campground for yourself offers privacy, social distancing, and a communion with the outdoors.

“When it comes to Covid bubbles, camping is potentially the only way for some groups to escape and comply with current regulations,” said Dan Yates, founder and CEO of Pitchup.com, a booking site of campgrounds in more than 50 countries.

About a quarter of Pitchup listings have less than 10 campsites and nearly 20% have between 10 and 25 sites, which puts them in the realm of buyout opportunities. Not all campsites accept groups – about 40% of the site is open to them – but of those doing the off-grid Glamping Canyonlands, about 40 miles south of Moab, Utah, will offer four platform tents at from $ 85 per room with toilets, showers and a common kitchen area.

For a true glamping experience, including a chef, guided hikes, and yoga classes, New Mexico-based Heritage Inspirations offers pop-up camps above the Rio Grande Valley in Taos, for up to 14 people in furnished tents for three days at $ 1250 a person.

In addition to demanding budgets, buybacks generally represent a significant investment of time. But the operators at the day trip and attraction arenas offer creative ways to indulge an afternoon.

At the Neon Museum in Las Vegas, dedicated to displaying neon signage of the Strip and surrounding areas, private groups of 20 people can purchase an entrance slot for $ 20 each, giving them 45 minutes alone with the relics.

Free Tours by Foot normally offers free walking tours (travelers are encouraged to pay what they want) to dozens of cities around the world. But they also offer relatively affordable private tours for groups. In New Orleans (where public tours are currently suspended until March, due to the pandemic), a two-hour private tour costs $ 25 per person for up to six people.

You can take your private wellness goals to the Sound View Hotel in Greenport on the North Fork of Long Island in New York City, where a private yoga class for five, followed by a three-course lunch starts at $ 700. or $ 140 per person.

Booking where the dollar is strong is one way to get more value from any trip, in this case turning a luxury like a buyout into something achievable.

In Mexico, open to American visitors arriving by plane despite a surge in coronavirus infections, a dollar is currently worth more than 19 Mexican pesos. So while rates for the five-bedroom boutique hotel Casa Delphine in San Miguel de Allende are quoted in US currency at $ 1,250 for a full buyout that can accommodate 10 people, local spending, including dining, offers more. purchasing power for the dollar.

“Everything here is reasonable compared to US prices, so this isn’t a crazy vacation,” said Amanda Keidan, the hotel’s owner.

While considerably larger with 25 rooms, the Casa Salles Hotel Boutique in Tequila, Mexico is available for buyouts at $ 4,053 a night, around $ 162 a room (or around $ 330 if you want to limit your bubble to a dozen. of rooms). The property, featuring an outdoor pool, spa, restaurant and bar, is on the grounds of the El Tequileño Distillery and is about a 10-minute walk from the town center.

Chartering your own small boat is a reach for most budgets, but fares in some areas are low during the travel crisis. Rainforest Cruises, an agency specializing in small vessels, offers the six-passenger Amazon EcoBoat on the Amazon River in Brazil for $ 8,400 for four days, or about $ 350 per person per day, including meals and daily excursions. led by a naturalist (Brazil is currently open to international arrivals by air with certain requirements, including a negative coronavirus test).

Requests for private browsing are ongoing, though most travelers are waiting for the fog of the virus to clear.

“Not everyone is ready to pull the trigger,” said Jeremy Clubb, founder and director of Rainforest Cruises. “We’re finding that people are researching and collecting options, but are inclined to book close to the trip.”


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Biden’s Iowa bus tour heads to DC reunion

It turned out that traditionally conservative seniors would help propel Mr. Biden to the presidency, and he had a stronger appeal during the primary campaign among black voters than any of his rivals.

Now on the verge of entering the White House, Mr Biden has signaled his intention to bring his loyal team together again with the eagerness of a coach rallying his team for one final game. Last week, he appointed Mr. Vilsack as his choice for the post of Secretary of Agriculture. He chose Mr. Kerry for a prominent climate post. And Antony J. Blinken, a longtime aide to Mr. Biden who was spotted in Iowa with him, is now his choice for secretary of state.

While Mr Biden’s picks so far underscore his experience and deep bench of lasting relationships, it’s also a stark reminder of his roots in an older, whiter generation that has at times seemed at odds with the energy. of the current Democratic Party. .

He might not have won the youth crowds a year ago, but he is, his team insists, determined to empower the next generation of Democratic leaders.

In a briefing with the news media on Friday, new White House press secretary Jennifer Psaki was keen to highlight the young members of Mr Biden’s team. Mr Biden has also appointed a number of people of color to senior cabinet positions, including as heads of the Pentagon and the Department of Homeland Security, even as he faces intense pressure from some. members of his own party who think he needs more people of color in leadership positions. .

Not everyone who helped him, even in Iowa, is an administrative choice so far, including Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms, who joined Mr Kerry on the bus tour.

Mr Kerrey also said he was not on Mr Biden’s list.

“There are a lot of people who have endorsed Joe Biden and who will not be in his cabinet,” he said. “You speak to only one.

Thomas Kaplan contributed to the reporting.