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Closed for nearly a year, empty Los Angeles Struggle museums

LOS ANGELES – Fulton Leroy Washington (known as Mr. Wash), who began painting while serving time for a non-violent drug offense, was looking forward to being a part of the Hammer Biennale Museum – his first museum exhibition – before the pandemic forced open the doors. closed a few months before the opening of the exhibition. “I started to get excited,” Washington said. “Then disappointment set in.”

The “Made in LA 2020” show was installed in June and is still in place. But the public was not allowed to see him inside.

Los Angeles, where the coronavirus pandemic has been particularly severe, is the largest city in the country whose museums have yet to reopen, even temporarily, since the pandemic last March. The extended closure costs its museums millions of dollars a day in lost revenue and brings the city back to a crucial time when an influx of artists and galleries and a growing museum scene have prompted some to make Los Angeles the creative hub. from the world of contemporary art. .

“It’s frustrating to see crowded malls, retail spaces and airports, but museums are completely closed and many haven’t been able to reopen at all in the past 10 months,” said Celeste DeWald , Executive Director of the California Association of Museums. “There is a unique impact on museums.”

The city is an outlier. In recent weeks, museums in Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago, all of which have experienced less severe outbreaks, have been allowed to reopen at reduced capacity. And New York’s museums, which reopened in late August, remained open even as virus cases and deaths spiked again in the fall and winter.

While the viral outlook in Los Angeles has improved dramatically since last month, when a surge overwhelmed hospitals and funeral homes, the county continues to record more new cases of the virus every day than any other in America.

Some Los Angeles museum executives are bristling with state regulations, which they say forced them to remain closed even as commercial entities were allowed to resume operations (and art galleries are now open by appointment).

“When they opened up art galleries and indoor malls, I was like, ‘That doesn’t sound right to me,'” said Hammer director Ann Philbin. “Our museums function as real places of respite, healing and inspiration – they help people a lot. ”

Some museums elsewhere in the state were able to reopen at least briefly, including the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, which opened for two months from October before having to close again.

But now all museums in the state must remain closed indoors (outdoor areas can be used), costing them $ 22 million a day, according to the museums association. The total estimated revenue losses for 2020 are more than $ 5 billion, the association said, including science centers, zoos and aquariums.

A statement from the office of Gavin Newsom, the Governor of California, said that “museums are essential to the fabric of our society,” but warned that they remain “high-risk environments as they attract visitors from all over the world. State and country, which increases the risk of transmission of the virus. “

In addition, visitors often stay in museums for long periods of time, “the statement continued,” again increasing the risk of transmission. “

In Los Angeles, the prolonged closure of museums has impacted not only admissions and memberships, but also event rentals, fundraising and other income-generating activities.

“It hurts,” said W. Richard West Jr., president and CEO of the Autry Museum of the American West, adding that he hoped the museums would be allowed to reopen at a limited capacity “so that the public know that we are not dead. “

The pandemic has struck amid a wave of activity in Los Angeles museums: major renovation projects at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Hammer; the success of the Broad; the creation of the Frieze Los Angeles art fair; and new management at the Museum of Contemporary Art (Klaus Biesenbach) and the Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art (Anne Ellegood).

Two new flagships of the city have had to postpone their opening dates: the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures, from spring to fall 2021, and the Lucas Museum of Narrative Art, from 2022 to 2023.

Small institutions have been particularly affected. Revenue for the Museum of African American Art, which is on the third floor of a Macy’s store, fell 68%. “We are inside an open retail space,” Keasha Dumas Heath, the museum’s executive director, said during a Feb. 2 testimony before a National Assembly arts committee on how to safely reopen artistic activities. “People don’t understand why we are closed.”

Artists, in particular, are feeling the effects. One of the most anticipated exhibitions of the year, the Hammer Biennale ‘Made in LA 2020’ – with its complementary presentation at the Huntington Library, the Art Museum and the Botanical Gardens – has been postponed until later this year . The delay left the show’s 30 artists without a crucial opportunity to gain attention.

“This show can make or break careers,” Philbin said. “It’s a really big show for these artists – it can offer them galleries – and it’s not happening for any of them right now.

Due to the extended closure and crowded exhibition calendars of the museums, some shows may have to close without ever being seen by the public. The Getty Museum’s exhibition of Michelangelo’s drawings was only open to the public for six days; another, in Mesopotamia, was due to open just after the museum closed on March 14.

Last April, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art expected to open what was billed as the first international retrospective of Japanese painter Yoshitomo Nara. The artist, known for his disturbing portraits, made two trips to Los Angeles from Tokyo to oversee the installation of the exhibition, but it never opened.

As they tried to argue that they should be allowed to fully resume their operations, several museum directors in Los Angeles said most of their attendance came from locals, not tourists. And some have suggested that visitors to museums don’t dwell on art as long as some would expect.

In a call to reopen museums last fall, the state museums association cited research from the California Academy of Sciences showing that visitors typically spend less than 20 minutes in exhibits. (A group of researchers conducted a study at the Art Institute of Chicago and found that the time spent viewing a single artwork averaged around 29 seconds.)

Michael Govan, director of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, said he was struck by the inconsistency in the museum’s store being allowed to remain open, as it qualifies as commerce, as are galleries. art, which are often much smaller than museums. Museums, he argued, provide a public service.

“We could be part of the solution,” Govan said.

At Los Angeles’ largest museums, officials say, it would be easy to enforce distancing measures. “We have 100,000 square feet of space and a limited number of people in the museum,” said Terry L. Karges, executive director of the Petersen Automotive Museum.

Newsom’s recently proposed budget included $ 25 million for small museums and theaters, as well as $ 15 million for the California Arts Council for the California Creative Corps – to be funded through matching private donations – which would hire artists to produce. public health messages.

“We know they are struggling,” Newsom said of state institutions. “We also know that people of all ages look to these organizations for hope, healing, connection and joy.” But he added that the guidelines for museums “are aimed at ensuring the safety of people in order to minimize case rates and ensure that we don’t overload our intensive care units.”

According to state guidelines, museums cannot open their doors if they are in counties with an average of more than seven new cases per day per 100,000 population. Los Angeles County averages more than 40 new cases per day per 100,000 population, according to a New York Times database that tracks the two-week trend.

The state legislature’s budget committees have called on the governor to increase his funding for cultural aid to $ 50 million. “California is the latest state to allow statewide covered museums to reopen,” the committee chairs said in a Feb. 4 letter co-signed by 250 cultural institutions.

“While we understand the need to be cautious to avoid the spread,” the letter continued, “we also know that no industry can survive shutdown for more than a year.”

Not all Los Angeles museums are pushing to reopen. “We need to prioritize the safety of our staff and our public,” said Biesenbach of the Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), where total revenues fell by 26%, members by 32% and admissions from 50%.

“When the numbers go down and the vaccine is out,” Biesenbach added, “then it would be appropriate to reopen.”

Others are eager to let people in. “We haven’t given up,” said DeWald of the museums association. “We continue to argue that museums can adopt protocols and use existing state guidelines to make their spaces safe.”

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Senate Democrats face power struggle for top magistrate

WASHINGTON – As soon as Senator Richard J. Durbin of Illinois officially learned on Monday that there would be a Democratic overture at the top of the judicial commission, he telephoned his colleagues to try to convince their support for the post.

“Never take anything for granted,” Durbin said of her candidacy to replace Senator Dianne Feinstein of California, who stepped down as a senior Democrat from the panel under intense pressure from progressive activists who judged her insufficiently aggressive for the job. “I have participated in these competitions before.”

A Democratic colleague Mr Durbin did not speak to was Senator Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island, who made it clear the next afternoon that he was also interested in the job. Some of the same progressive activists who insisted on putting Ms Feinstein aside said they would support him.

The competition set up a rare internal power struggle that mirrored wider differences between Democrats over their party’s leadership and approach in a new Congress. As they sort through the election results, which gave them control of the White House but left their hopes of taking the Senate in abeyance, some are pushing for a new, more combative style and a generational change.

Depending on the results of two Senate rounds in Georgia in January, whoever wins the battle for the post will be either the panel chairman or the leading Democrat, with a crucial role to play in a panel that Republicans have turned into confirmation. judicial. Assembly line.

Mr. Durbin is next behind Ms. Feinstein on the committee, and Democrats generally adhere to seniority when filling such positions. The tension in this case stems in part from the fact that Mr. Durbin is already Leader No.2 and holds a major subcommittee chair on the supply board, which controls federal spending. For some, he tries to accumulate power, potentially to the detriment of his own efficiency in one or the other job.

“In the end, it won’t come down to political considerations,” said Brian Fallon, executive director of the progressive advocacy group Demand Justice and a supporter of Mr. Whitehouse. “It’s going to be whether the caucus thinks a leadership position and first place on a major committee are too important for a single member to hold simultaneously.

Mr Durbin said it was common for Senate leaders to take a prominent position on a committee, and his office noted that the whip, the second-rank official, had done so regularly in the past. First elected to the Senate in 1996, Mr. Durbin, 76, who has just won his fifth term, has never been chairman or a major minority member of a Committee of the Whole. He said he saw this as his chance to influence the direction of a panel he served on for 22 years.

Members of both parties viewed Mr. Durbin as an effective advocate for committee Democrats who were angered at the way Republicans have blocked candidates in recent years.

“Believe me, I wouldn’t take this if I didn’t think I could do the job,” he said in an interview this week.

Supporters of Mr. Durbin, who has his own decidedly liberal record, noted his pursuit of progressive goals on a range of issues.

“Senator Durbin has consistently articulated progressive values ​​at the heart of the Judiciary Committee’s mission, ranging from corporate empowerment to arbitration and bankruptcy reform, to promoting fair elections and whistleblower protection and civil liberties, ”said Daniel Schuman, director of policy at Demand Progress.

Under Republican control since 2015, the committee has been the focal point of that party’s drive to uphold more than 220 conservative federal judges, including three Supreme Court judges and 53 appeals court judges.

In this context, Mr Whitehouse, 65, who declined to be interviewed for this article, explained how a network of advocacy groups took money from undisclosed donors to support the confirmation of Tory judges who are considered potentially sensitive to their interests. .

At Judge Amy Coney Barrett’s confirmation hearing in October, Mr. Whitehouse devoted her first round of questioning to laying out her case and telling her that she needed to understand the “forces outside of this room.” who pull strings and push sticks and the puppet theater to react.

His push has brought him the backing of those on the left who believe Democrats haven’t been aggressive enough to challenge Republicans over justice. But they also see Mr. Whitehouse, who has just been elected for his third term, as someone who would bring a new perspective to the top of the committee.

“I think it takes a bit of fresh air, a new energy,” said Faiz Shakir, a former senior Senate adviser and progressive activist who served as presidential campaign director for Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont. Mr Shakir said his support for Mr Whitehouse was not a personal complaint against Mr Durbin, but that the Democrat of Rhode Island had “gained credibility” through his work.

“Giving him the opportunity to lead a committee, I think, would be a good change of guard for the Democrats in the Senate,” Shakir said.

Mr. Durbin credited Mr. Whitehouse with a “great job” in outlining the expenses related to judicial appointments.

“This is an important question, and I’m glad he brings it up,” said Durbin, who has been very critical of the Republican treatment of confirmations and said he would pursue a reset if Democrats won a majority. .

“There clearly has to be a balance between the courts,” he said. “Most Americans aren’t looking for all Democrats or all Republicans.”

Mr Durbin said he believed the committee had drifted from its old role as a driving force of the Senate and wanted to reinvigorate it. If he had the place of leader, he said, he would try to refocus the committee on voting rights, executive branch oversight, antitrust efforts and the immunity from opposite liability that Republicans pursue to the aftermath of the coronavirus pandemic.

Mr Durbin also highlighted his ability to work with Senator Charles E. Grassley of Iowa, who will either be the main Republican or the chairman of the panel, particularly on a criminal justice overhaul that has become law in 2018. Mr Durbin negotiated a deal with Mr Grassley on reduced sentences for non-violent offenders despite Iowan’s own reservations and pressure to drop the contentious provisions to advance the rest of the law.

“Very few people thought we could pass sentencing reform as part of First Step,” said Holly Harris, president of Justice Action Network, a bipartisan criminal justice reform organization. She credited Mr. Durbin with keeping aspects of sentencing alive: “Through him, criminal justice reform was a first step rather than a timid stumbling block.”

House leadership elections are notoriously difficult to cripple, as lawmakers are reluctant to publicly commit to a decision taken in secret. The election will take place in the coming weeks, before the convening of the new Congress early next year.

Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the leader of the party that must overcome the divide in his caucus, has so far said nothing about whether he has a preference.

But if there’s one thing all Senate Democrats can agree on, it’s that they would much prefer Mr. Durbin or Mr. Whitehouse to chair the Judiciary Committee rather than make him the Principal Democrat. , the position depending on the result in Georgia. .

“We are all stepping in in every way imaginable to help the two candidates over there,” Durbin said.

Catie Edmondson contributed reporting.

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The struggle for control of the Senate

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This year’s election season has at times seemed the longest the country has ever seen. It was mean. This happened during a pandemic that has held many of us home. And it’s still not over.

It’s not even a reference to President Trump’s continued refusal to concede – which, while undermining the credibility of American democracy, is extremely unlikely to change the outcome.

When I say that the campaign is not over, I am talking about Georgia. Due to both the circumstances and an oddity in that state’s law, Georgia will host two Senate second-round elections on January 5 (barring an unlikely change in current vote totals). The implications are enormous.

If Democrats win both, they will be in tight control of the Senate, and Joe Biden will be able to pursue ambitious legislation on coronavirus, climate change, job creation, taxes and more. If Republicans win either seat in Georgia, they will retain control of the Senate (barring an unlikely change in another state’s vote totals), and Biden will need one or several Republican votes to pass a bill.

In earlier times, the difference between these two scenarios may not have been huge. Either way, Senate moderates, from one party or the other, would have been the key to passing bills. But our polarized time is different, especially for Republicans in Congress.

They were almost uniformly reluctant to work with Presidents Bill Clinton or Barack Obama on important laws, dealing with taxes, climate, health care, economic stimulus and more. Obama offered various compromises – like market-based systems for expanding health insurance or tackling climate change – and still couldn’t win Republican votes. The situation has been more nuanced with Congressional Democrats during Republican presidencies, as bipartisan coalitions have passed big stimulus, medicare and education bills since 2000.

Perhaps Biden will somehow be more adept at finding Republican votes than Obama or Clinton. More likely, however, the Georgia election will shape Washington for at least the next two years.

The most significant difference probably concerns climate change. This is “the problem that highlights Georgia’s second round”, as Ezra Klein of Vox wrote. “If Democrats win 50 Senate seats, large-scale climate legislation is possible, if not likely. If it doesn’t, it just won’t happen.

Here are the basics of Georgia, if you want to dig deeper:

  • One of the two rounds of voting will resolve a special election following the early retirement of Johnny Isakson, an unhealthy Republican. The top two vote-winners in the first round of this special election will now go head to head. They are Senator Kelly Loeffler, a Republican businesswoman the governor of Georgia appointed to seat, and Raphael Warnock, the chief pastor of the Atlanta church that Martin Luther King Jr. once led.

  • The second round takes place between Sen. David Perdue, a Republican running on the regular schedule for a second term, and Jon Ossoff, the Democratic nominee and a documentary maker. Lost leads Ossoff, 49.7 percent to 47.9 percent, in the latest vote count. But Georgia, unlike most states, demands a run-off if neither candidate wins 50 percent in the general Senate election.

  • Both sides view Georgia’s second round as highly competitive. Biden currently leads Trump in Georgia from 49.5% to 49.2%.

  • To learn more about the run-off contenders, try these profiles: Times Richard Fausset on Loeffler; Emma Green from the Atlantic on Warnock; and Tamar Hallerman of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution on Ossoff and Perdue.

Under the sea: The clicks of squabbling dolphins; the roar of a hydrothermal vent. Scientists have long listened to the sounds of the oceans, but only recently have they turned to the deeper parts of the sea.

Lives lived: Tom Heinsohn’s blood turned green. The Hall of Fame forward played on eight NBA championship teams with the Boston Celtics, coached them to two titles and became their avid broadcaster for more than three decades. He died at the age of 86.


Subscribers make our reporting possible, so we can help you figure it out right now. If you are not a subscriber, consider becoming one today.

If you don’t play video games, it’s easy to lose sight of the scale of the industry. It grossed $ 120 billion in revenue last year, nearly three times more than in Hollywood. In the United States, two-thirds of adults play video games, whether on their phone, computer, or console. The game is so popular that millions of people visit streaming sites every month to watch other people play games.

Yet video games don’t get as much media attention as movies, TV, music, or sports. We’re going to do our part to fill that gap by telling you – if you don’t already know – that this week is an important week for the industry, as two new video game consoles are coming out: Sony’s PlayStation 5 and Sony’s PlayStation 5. Microsoft. Xbox Series X.

New consoles are rare. Sony and Microsoft both released the most recent versions of their systems seven years ago. The new consoles will likely stick around for just as long, which means that these will be the machines that power video games for most of this decade.

The main difference with the new consoles is the picture quality, with even more realistic graphics. The new systems also promise faster load times.

“Years of advancement in technology and game development are coming to fruition,” Kellen Browning, who covers video games for The Times, told us. “Imagine if a new iPhone only came out once every seven years – that’s what that moment looks like for gamers.”

The opinions: Times reporters rate the PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X.

Yesterday’s Spelling Bee pangram was godson. Today’s puzzle is above – or you can play it online if you have a Games membership.

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Where the electoral struggle takes place in the courts

As Joseph R. Biden Jr. draws closer to victory in the presidential race, President Trump and the Republican Party have stepped up their efforts to stop the counting of the ballots and challenge the ballots of Democratic voters in the framework of legal proceedings across the country.

Nearly a dozen lawsuits were already pending in courts in Nevada, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Georgia, four key states where Mr. Biden leads or has won the vote count.

But none of them seem – at least not yet – to provide Mr. Trump with what he would need to win: the rejection of a sufficient number of Democratic ballots in enough states to nullify any Biden victory. .

If Mr. Trump and the Republicans fail to find those rejections in court, they could – and will try – to do so through recounts, but the bar is raised there, too.

Here are the cases currently underway or subject to a potential appeal. All were initiated by Mr. Trump, his party or his allies.

Status: at the Supreme Court of the United States

In September, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled that election officials could accept ballots that were postmarked on election day but arrived up to three days later. The Republicans then sued and the case went to the United States Supreme Court.

But in late October, the Supreme Court refused to intercede, saying it was too close to election day to make such a decision, but left open the possibility of a decision at a later date.

On Wednesday, the Trump campaign filed a motion to intervene in the case, and on Friday the Pennsylvania Republican Party sought to join the effort.

But that fight could turn out to be fruitless, as Mr Biden’s advance in the state is based on ballots issued on Election Day and is expected to increase. Pennsylvania Secretary of State Kathy Boockvar said Thursday that there were not a large number of late ballots. Friday evening, no follow-up had been given to this case.

Status: pending in state court and resolved in federal court

On Thursday morning, a Pennsylvania state court awarded Mr. Trump a small victory. A judge ruled that election observers from the Trump campaign, who were allowed to stand 10 feet from the vote count at the Philadelphia Convention Center, could move closer, six feet away.

By the end of the day, however, advocates for the Trump campaign had filed an emergency petition in federal court claiming city election officials were not respecting the state court ruling and asking that the tally be taken. in Philadelphia be delayed.

In a hastily scheduled hearing Thursday night, however, Mr. Trump’s campaign admitted that a “non-zero number” of Republican observers had in fact turned up.

“So what’s the problem?” Asked Judge Paul S. Diamond.

The Trump campaign finally agreed to drop its demand to stop the vote count after Judge Diamond, who was appointed by President George W. Bush, allowed a total of 120 observers at the convention center – 60 for Democrats and 60 for Republicans. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has yet to rule on the issue of observers.

Status: pending in state and federal courts

Republicans have taken legal action in federal and state courts alleging Ms Boockvar provided inappropriate advice to counties by allowing them to contact voters whose ballots were rejected due to errors so those voters could correct or “cure” their ballots or vote. provisional ballots.

Both cases focus on the votes in Montgomery County, where officials say only 98 ballots could be affected.

A federal case judge, also appointed by George W. Bush, expressed skepticism at a hearing Wednesday on the validity of the Republicans’ challenge. A decision is pending.

Status: pending in state court

The Trump campaign has also sued Ms Boockvar over her decision to extend by three days, until November 12, the deadline by which mail-in voters must submit documents confirming their identity if they vote for the first time in certain districts. It is not known how many votes this case could affect.

Status: call waiting at state level

Mr. Trump’s campaign filed a lawsuit ahead of election day to try to stop the processing of mail-in ballots in Clark County, which includes Las Vegas. The campaign alleged that county officials were not giving Republican observers adequate access to monitor the processing of mail-in ballots and that the county’s signature-matching system violated electoral equality protection laws because it was not used elsewhere in the state.

A judge rejected the Trump campaign’s request earlier this week, citing a lack of evidence. An appeals court dismissed the Republicans’ request to order an immediate end to the count, but agreed to hear arguments next week.

Republicans said on Thursday they would drop their case in exchange for a county deal to expand their observers’ access to polling counters, but Democrats refused to agree to a dismissal, so the case remains. pending. Republicans have since filed a similar lawsuit in federal court.

Status: resolved in federal court

In an effective extension of the state’s trial, two Nevada Republican House candidates filed a lawsuit on Thursday, alleging that there were “lax procedures for authenticating ballots” in Clark County and that more than 3,000 ballots had been cast by ineligible voters, including some “On behalf of deceased voters.”

The case was assigned to Judge Andrew P. Gordon, appointed by President Barack Obama, who dismissed it on Friday. The two Republican candidates who brought the case can however appeal the decision.

Status: pending in state court

It was one of the strangest election claims. Hours after the Arizona polls closed, a story ricocheted the internet saying that dozens, if not hundreds, of ballots across the state had not been counted because voters filled them with Sharpies with felt tip and not with ball point pens.

Even though cybersecurity officials from the Department of Homeland Security urged people to ignore the story, crowds came outside a polling station in Maricopa County, shouting about “SharpieGate”.

Maricopa County voter Laurie Aguilera on Wednesday filed a lawsuit with help from a conservative Indiana legal group, the Public Interest Legal Foundation, claiming that her ballot – and those of countless other people – hadn’t been read correctly by voting scanners. because she had used a Sharpie and the “ink was bleeding”. Ms Aguilera asked a judge to allow all voters who filled out their ballots with Sharpies to “cure” them.

Thursday, the Maricopa County Elections Department issued a statement saying the Sharpies were in fact “manufacturer recommended” of the vote tabulation machines the county uses. Later in the day, the state attorney general’s office issued a letter noting that the use of Sharpies in Maricopa County “did not result in deprivation of the right to vote”.

Status: Thrown by the county court

The Trump campaign filed a lawsuit in Georgia on Wednesday, claiming that a witness observed that 53 late ballots in Chatham County were not properly stored, potentially allowing them to mingle with ballots in in due course, and demanded that the counting of ballots in the county be stopped. .

But Chatham County Superior Court Judge James Bass dismissed the lawsuit Thursday, saying there was no evidence that those 53 ballots were received after the 7 p.m. deadline and that there was no evidence that county officials had broken the law.

The Trump campaign or its Republican allies did not say on Friday whether an appeal was pending.

The Trump campaign filed a lawsuit on Wednesday asking a state judge to stop the counting of the votes, alleging that his observers had been blocked from meaningful access to the counting rooms. The campaign also demanded access to surveillance footage of state ballot boxes.

A judge dismissed the lawsuit Thursday, noting that the tally was over. Mr. Biden won the state and maintains a lead of nearly 150,000 votes. But it’s not clear whether the Trump campaign will please.

Georgia: Brad Raffensperger, Secretary of State, announced on Friday that the state would conduct a recount in the presidential race, saying the results would fall within the margin of a recount. “We’re literally looking for a lower margin than a large high school,” said Gabriel Sterling, director of voting implementation in Georgia.

Wisconsin: Mr. Trump would be entitled to a recount in Wisconsin as long as the margin between him and Mr. Biden remains below 1% of the vote. Preliminary state results show Mr. Trump lags by about six-tenths of 1%.

A request for a recount cannot be made until all 72 counties in the state have submitted their results to the Wisconsin Election Commission, which is expected by November 17. The Trump campaign should pay for a statewide recount unless the margin narrows to less than one. quarter of 1 percent.

Pennsylvania: State law requires an automatic recount if the result is half a percent or less. If the margin is larger than that, Mr. Trump could still ask for a statewide recount, but he would have to pay for it.

Arizona: State law requires a recount if the margin is one-tenth of one percent or less – otherwise, it cannot be requested.

Nevada: Any candidate or campaign can request a recount within three days of the final statewide results poll, regardless of the margin. There is no automatic recount of states.