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How Black History Week Became Black History Month and Why It Matters Now

Developing alongside the Harlem Renaissance, Negro History Week uses every platform at its disposal to spread its message.

Dr Woodson and his colleagues have set an ambitious program for Negro History Week. They provided a Kindergarten to Grade 12 curriculum with photos, lesson plans and posters with important dates and biographical information. In an article published in 1932 titled “Negro History Week: The Sixth Grade,” Dr. Woodson noted that some white schools participated in Negro History Week programs and that this had improved race relations. . He and his colleagues also engaged the community at large with historic performances, banquets, lectures, breakfasts, beauty pageants and parades.

LD Reddick, a historian, heard “the father of Negro history” speak as a child in his hometown of Jacksonville, Florida. Everything about Dr. Woodson, he recalled, produced an “electric” effect. As Mr. Reddick wrote: “He performed well on the platform, I thought, moving pretty much like a skilled boxer: never in a hurry, never hesitant, skillfully fighting for openings, pushing his blows skillfully. Mr. Reddick, who would later collaborate with the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on his book on the Montgomery Bus Boycotts, was amazed that Dr. Woodson was “easily … the most impressive speaker I have ever had. have never heard this time in my life.

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For rural schools, Dr Woodson finally presented special kits for Black History Week that could include a list of suggested reading materials, speeches and photos of famous African Americans, and a play. theater on black history.

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Another month on a warming planet: record November

Last month was the hottest November on record, European researchers said Monday, as the relentless warming of the climate turned out to be too high, even for the possible effects of cooler ocean temperatures in the region. tropical Pacific Ocean.

Scientists from the Copernicus Climate Change Service said global temperatures in November were 0.1 degrees Celsius (about 0.2 degrees Fahrenheit) above previous record holders, in 2016 and 2019. November 2020 was 0.8 degrees Celsius (or 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit) plus average from 1981 to 2010.

Warm conditions persisted over large swathes of the planet, with above-average temperatures highest in northern Europe and Siberia, as well as in the Arctic Ocean. Much of the United States was also warmer than average.

The Copernicus service said that so far this year temperatures were at the same level as 2016, which is the hottest year on record. Barring a significant drop in global temperatures in December, 2020 is expected to stay on par with 2016 or even become the hottest on record by a small margin, the service said.

“These records are consistent with the long-term warming trend of the global climate,” department manager Carlo Buontempo said in a statement. “All policy makers who prioritize climate risk mitigation should regard these recordings as alarm bells.”

In September, the world entered La Niña, a phase of the climate model that also brings El Niño and affects the weather across the world. La Niña is marked by cooler-than-normal sea surface temperatures in the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean. Last month, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said La Niña had strengthened, meaning surface temperatures had dropped further.

While La Niña can bring warmer conditions to some areas – especially the southern United States – it usually has an overall cooling effect. Last week, releasing a World Meteorological Organization climate report that noted, among other things, that 2020 was on its way to be one of the three hottest years in history, the secretary-general of the organization, Petteri Taalas, said that La Niña’s cooling effect “was not enough to dampen the heat this year.

Marybeth Arcodia, a doctoral student studying climate dynamics at the University of Miami, said there are other elements that affect climate, including the natural oscillations of wind, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and temperatures. oceanic at different time scales. “There are so many different climatic factors at play that could mask this signal from La Niña,” Ms. Arcodia said.

But the most important element, she noted, is human-induced climate change.

“It should be borne in mind that the average global temperature is increasing at an unprecedented rate due to human influences,” she said. “That’s the main factor here.”

“So we will continue to see these record high temperatures even when we have climatic phases, like La Niña, which could bring cooler temperatures.”

Scientists from the Copernicus service said warm conditions in the Arctic last month slowed the freezing of Arctic ice Oce4an. The extent of sea ice cover was the second lowest in November since satellites began observing the area in 1979. A slower frost could result in thinner ice and therefore more melting in late spring and in summer.

The Arctic has been extremely hot for much of the year, part of a long-term trend in which the region is warming much faster than other parts of the world. The heat contributed to large forest fires in Siberia during the summer and led to the second lowest minimum extent of sea ice for a September, the end of the summer melt season.

The Copernicus Climate Change Service is part of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, which is supported by the European Union. In the United States, NOAA also publishes monthly and annual temperature data, usually after the European agency. Although the analytical techniques differ, the results are often very similar.

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There is another second round in Georgia and the winner gets a month in Congress

ATLANTA – Kwanza Hall and Robert M. Franklin Jr. have campaigned for months, planting signs in the grassy medians along Atlanta’s busy highways and on the windows of popular brunch spots.

They handed out hand sanitizer, met the Omega Psi Phi men, and argued vigorously with each other. During a live chat, they delved into ambitious ideas to overcome intractable problems – limited access to health care, inequalities in the criminal justice system, and infringements of the right to vote.

Politics have consumed much of Georgia in recent weeks. President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. won the state – a feat no Democrat had achieved for nearly three decades, and another confirmed by a manual audit of the ballots – and two rounds of the ballot in high stakes in January will determine which party controls the Senate.

Well that’s the other second round, especially notable for the short round the winner will have in Congress. Very short. All in all, not even a month in the House.

A set of special circumstances created a contest with stakes that couldn’t be much lower. Mr Hall and Dr Franklin, both Democrats, vie for a run-off Tuesday in a reliable Democratic district for a term that ends at noon on Jan.3. And there is no chance of overtime for the winner, like his successor was. elected this month.

Still, the candidates argued that their offers were anything but inconsequential. The winner will serve in what would have been the last days of John Lewis’ 17th term representing Georgia’s Fifth Congressional District. Mr Lewis, the pioneering civil rights leader, died on July 17.

“These are the days he won,” Dr. Franklin, a scholar and former president of Morehouse College, said in front of a library before voting. “For me, it’s honor and privilege.”

Dr Franklin and Mr Hall, a former Atlanta city councilor, qualified for a runoff after a special election in September, coming out of a mixed group comprising five Democrats, one Independent and one Libertarian.

“It matters to me,” Hall said, “because we haven’t had any performances since July 17.”

The neighborhood, which encompasses parts of Atlanta and its surrounding suburbs, is an economic and cultural hub that has long drawn South African Americans with opportunities for upward mobility and relief from the burdens of racial hostility in the places they left behind.

But it’s also an area that has been reminded of how far Atlanta’s aspirations for the promise have fallen short of reality.

Gentrification spread quickly, driving out longtime black residents. And in June, Rayshard Brooks, an African-American man, was killed by a city policeman, sparking protests that became tense and violent and stressed that, despite its reputation, Atlanta was anything but immune from pernicious consequences. and enduring of the breed. inequality.

After Mr Lewis’ death, Democratic Party officials had to rush to meet a deadline to replace his name on the November ballot, call for nominations and land on Nikema Williams, a state senator.

Party officials did give Ms. Williams a ticket to Congress. Mr Lewis, a Democrat, had won all but one of his re-election proposals with over 70% of the vote. Ms Williams won 85% of the vote and she was previously elected president of the New Class of Democrats.

Mr Hall and Dr Franklin are involved in a separate process that began when Governor Brian Kemp called for a special election for the remainder of Mr Lewis’ term. Ms Williams declined to participate and no candidate crossed the 50% mark in the September election, forcing the second round. (Just over 31,000 people voted.)

The campaign can seem like a confusing endeavor. Only the interval between the special election and Tuesday’s second round is more than twice as long as the winner’s time in Congress.

Despite this, the candidates made serious investments in time and money. They won the approval of elected officials, activists and local business leaders. While the donations are a far cry from the stupendous sums that the stormy Senate races have brought in, they have amassed hundreds of thousands of dollars among themselves.

Dr Franklin hired a staff of eight and maintained a regular schedule of virtual events, such as joining a gathering of interfaith leaders.

Mr. Hall led a lean operation. He is his own director of communications. The phone number displayed on his campaign’s Facebook page rings on his cell phone.

He keeps his face covered and traded handshakes for elbow bumps during the pandemic, but he still prefers to beat the pavement. “I’m showing up to Congress,” he said one person after another as he handed out flyers in a mall.

The two men have noble notions of what they could accomplish in office.

Dr. Franklin sees a bully chair, a platform for him as a minister and professor of moral leadership at Emory University to deliver a message of clarity in a time of turbulence. And what would be his last day in office, a Sunday, he said, he would walk away with a blessing for Mr Lewis and his work.

Mr Hall plans to go out with an aggressive agenda: working to decriminalize marijuana, clear the records of formerly incarcerated people, create economic opportunities.

“I can do the equivalent of what I’ve done in 15 years – I can do it in 15 days,” he said, referring to his years on Atlanta city council. “I know what not to waste my time on. I know how to be efficient. “

The history of Congress is dotted with members whose terms were best measured in days. For the most part, all the achievements recorded by history were largely symbolic.

In fact, the first woman to serve in the Senate came from Georgia: Rebecca Latimer Felton, an 87-year-old writer and activist who was appointed in 1922 after the death of her predecessor, once served and gave a speech. In it, she shared her vision of a Senate where more women would serve: “You will gain skills, you will gain the integrity of your goals, you will gain exalted patriotism, and you will gain unwavering utility.”

In all likelihood, Mr. Hall or Mr. Franklin’s experience will be less or less productive: votes on some important legislation, including government funding bills, and opportunities to speak in the House .

“It’s going to be difficult to do anything in a short period of time, especially in this short period of time,” said Michael Crespin, director of the Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center at the University of the Oklahoma.

There is no lack of attention to Georgian politics at the moment, but this campaign was unlikely to compete with the recounted ballots, the Senate run-off, intra-partisan feuds between Georgia Republicans and a Democrat taking the state in a presidential race for the first time. since 1992.

It doesn’t help that the campaign is part of a tangle of proceedings after Mr Lewis’ death that left voters confused.

Mr. Lewis had an almost singular presence in Atlanta, embraced as a link to connect a new generation of Black Lives Matter activists to the civil rights movement that was rooted in the city.

Mr Hall, 49, said he was well placed to carry on that legacy even though he believed he was done with politics. His last campaign was a failed mayoral bid in 2017. He turned to business, working in economic development and consulting.

But around the time of Mr Lewis’ death, a coronavirus diagnosis confined Mr Hall to his bed and forced him to consider the future.

Recently, as he joined volunteers to pack boxes of hand sanitizer and canned goods, he leafed through photos on his phone. They were yellowed photos of his father, Leon W. Hall, a civil rights activist and one of the youngest lieutenants of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

In one, her father kissed Mr. Lewis. Another made him cry; it showed that his father was being dragged by a police officer during a demonstration. These photographs provided the boost he needed. “You are exactly where you are supposed to be,” he says.

Dr Franklin, 66, said he was waiting to see who else might come forward, such as Shirley Franklin, the former mayor of Atlanta, or Andrew Young, who was in the seat before Mr Lewis and who had also been mayor.

“OK,” he decided, “I have to offer my leadership.”

Whatever the outcome, he said, the campaign could be the prelude to a new chapter in elected office or perhaps ambassadorial office.

“I am by no means up to the task,” he said, trying to fill the void left by Mr Lewis, “but I think I could contribute something, even if not only for two weeks. “

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Canada Keeps US Border Closed for Another Month

The border between Canada and the US will be closed for another 30 days.

In a move that was widely expected and has now become almost common, Public Security Minister Bill Blair posted a short note on Twitter Monday to say that the Liberal government is “extending non-essential travel restrictions. with the United States until November 21, 2020. “

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Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats.

“Our decisions will continue to be based on the best public health advice available to keep Canadians safe,” said Blair.

The border was closed for the first time in March and there are regular extensions almost every month. The last extension before yesterday was to expire on October 21.

The border is still open to air traffic. Ottawa has also granted exemptions in some cases, including funerals and for married couples and families to get together.

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